Costume is the distinctive style of dress or cosmetic of an individual or group that reflects class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch. In short costume is a cultural visual of the people.
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The term also was traditionally used lớn describe typical appropriate clothing for certain activities, such as riding costume, swimming costume, dance costume, and evening costume. Appropriate and acceptable costume is subject lớn changes in fashion and local cultural norms.
"But sable is worn more in carriages, lined with real lace over ivory satin, and worn over some smart costume suitable for an afternoon reception." A Woman's Letter from London (23 November 1899).
This general usage has gradually been replaced by the terms "dress", "attire", "robes" or "wear" and usage of "costume" has become more limited lớn unusual or out-of-date clothing and lớn attire intended lớn evoke a change in identity, such as theatrical, Halloween, and mascot costumes.
Before the advent of ready-to-wear apparel, clothing was made by hand. When made for commercial sale it was made, as late as the beginning of the 20th century, by "costumiers", often women who ran businesses that met the demand for complicated or intimate female costume, including millinery and corsetry.
Costume comes from the same Italian word, inherited via French, which means fashion or custom.
King of Bhutan in traditional dress and Bhutanese Women in traditional dress
National costume or regional costume expresses local (or exiled) identity and emphasizes a culture's unique attributes. They are often a source of national pride. Examples include the Scottish kilt, Turkish Zeybek, or Japanese kimono.
In Bhutan there is a traditional national dress prescribed for men and women, including the monarchy. These have been in vogue for thousands of years and have developed into a distinctive dress style. The dress worn by men is known as Gho which is a robe worn up lớn knee-length and is fastened at the waist by a band called the Kera. The front part of the dress which is formed lượt thích a pouch, in olden days was used lớn hold baskets of food and short dagger, but now it is used lớn keep cell phone, purse and the betel nut called Doma. The dress worn by women consist of three pieces known as Kira, Tego and Wonju. The long dress which extends up lớn the ankle is Kira. The jacket worn above this is Tego which is provided with Wonju, the inner jacket. However, while visiting the Dzong or monastery a long scarf or stoll, called Kabney is worn by men across the shoulder, in colours appropriate lớn their ranks. Women also wear scarfs or stolls called Rachus, made of raw silk with embroidery, over their shoulder but not indicative of their rank.
Costume often refers lớn a particular style of clothing worn lớn portray the wearer as a character or type of character at a social sự kiện in a theatrical performance on the stage or in film or television. In combination with other aspects of stagecraft, theatrical costumes can help actors portray characters' and their contexts as well as communicate information about the historical period/era, geographic location and time of day, season or weather of the theatrical performance. Some stylized theatrical costumes, such as Harlequin and Pantaloon in the Commedia dell'arte, exaggerate an aspect of a character.
A costume technician is a term used for a person that constructs and/or alters the costumes. The costume technician is responsible for taking the two dimensional sketch and translating it lớn create a garment that resembles the designer's rendering. It is important for a technician lớn keep the ideas of the designer in mind when building the garment.
Draping and cutting
Draping is the art of manipulating the fabric using pins and hand stitching lớn create structure on a toàn thân. This is usually done on a dress sườn lớn get the adequate shape for the performer. Cutting is the act of laying out fabric on a flat surface, using scissors lớn cut and follow along a pattern. These pieces are put together lớn create a final costume.
Pros and cons of draping
- It is easier lớn visualize the finished product
- It is hard lớn keep the fabric symmetric
- You are able lớn drape in your fashion fabric rather phàn nàn making a muslin mockup
- Draping makes it difficult lớn replicate for multiple people
- There are no needs for patterns
- It can be hard lớn keep the grain of the fabric straight
- There is less waste when using the specific fabric from the start
Pros and cons of cutting
- You are able lớn create your own pattern lớn fit a certain size
- You may need instructions lớn piece the fabric together
- It is easier lớn control the grain of the fabric as well as symmetry
- There is more ability lớn create many of the same garment
- The measurements can be very accurate
- It takes time lớn see the final product
- Costume designer
- Designs and creates a concept for the costumes for the play or performance.
- Costume technician
- Constructs and patterns the costumes for the play or performance.
- Wardrobe supervisor
- Oversees the wardrobe crew and run rẩy of the show from backstage. They are responsible for maintaining the good condition of the costumes.
- Also known as a hatmaker, responsible for the manufacturing of hats and headwear.
The wearing of costumes is an important part of holidays developed from religious festivals such as Mardi Gras (in the lead up lớn Easter), and Halloween (related lớn All Hallow's Eve). Mardi Gras costumes usually take the sườn of jesters and other fantasy characters; Halloween costumes traditionally take the sườn of supernatural creatures such as ghosts, vampires, pop-culture icons and angels.
Halloween costumes developed from pre-Christian religious traditions: lớn avoid being terrorized by evil spirits walking the Earth during the harvest festival Samhain, the Celts donned disguises. In the eighth century, Pope Gregory VIII designated November 1 as All Saints Day, and the preceding days as All Hallows Eve; Samhain's costuming tradition was incorporated into these Christian holidays. Given the Catholic and pagan roots of the holiday, it has been repudiated by some Protestants. However, in the modern era, Halloween "is widely celebrated in almost every corner of American life," and the wearing of costumes forms part of a secular tradition. In 2022, United States households spent an average of $100 preparing for Halloween, with $34 going lớn costume-related spending.
Christmas costumes typically portray characters such as Santa Claus (developed from Saint Nicholas). In nước Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States the American version of a Santa suit and beard is popular; in the Netherlands, the costume of Zwarte Piet is customary. Easter costumes are associated with the Easter Bunny or other animal costumes.
In Judaism, a common practice is lớn dress up on Purim. During this holiday, Jews celebrate the change of their destiny. They were delivered from being the victims of an evil decree against them and were instead allowed by the King lớn destroy their enemies. A quote from the Book of Esther, which says: "On the contrary" (Hebrew: ונהפוך הוא) is the reason that wearing a costume has become customary for this holiday.
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Buddhist religious festivals in Tibet, Bhutan, Mongolia and Lhasa and Sikkim in India perform the Cham dance, which is a popular dance sườn utilising masks and costumes.
Parades and processions
Parades and processions provide opportunities for people lớn dress up in historical or imaginative costumes. For example, in 1879 the artist Hans Makart designed costumes and scenery lớn celebrate the wedding anniversary of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor and Empress and led the people of Vienna in a costume parade that became a regular sự kiện until the mid-twentieth century. Uncle Sam costumes are worn on Independence Day in the United States. The Lion Dance, which is part of Chinese New Year celebrations, is performed in costume. Some costumes, such as the ones used in the Dragon Dance, need teams of people lớn create the required effect.
Sporting events and parties
Public sporting events such as fun runs also provide opportunities for wearing costumes, as vì thế private masquerade balls and fancy dress parties.
Costumes are popularly employed at sporting events, during which fans dress as their team's representative mascot lớn show their tư vấn. Businesses use mascot costumes lớn bring in people lớn their business either by placing their mascot in the street by their business or sending their mascot out lớn sporting events, festivals, national celebrations, fairs, and parades. Mascots appear at organizations wanting lớn raise awareness of their work. Children's Book authors create mascots from the main character lớn present at their book signings. Animal costumes that are visually very similar lớn mascot costumes are also popular among the members of the furry fandom, where the costumes are referred lớn as fursuits and match one's animal persona, or "fursona".
Costumes also serve as an avenue for children lớn explore and role-play. For example, children may dress up as characters from history or fiction, such as pirates, princesses, cowboys, or superheroes. They may also dress in uniforms used in common jobs, such as nurses, police officers, or firefighters, or as zoo or farm animals. Young boys tend lớn prefer costumes that reinforce stereotypical ideas of being male, and young girls tend lớn prefer costumes that reinforce stereotypical ideas of being female.
Cosplay, a word of Japanese origin that in English is short for "costume display" or "costume play", is a performance art in which participants wear costumes and accessories lớn represent a specific character or idea that is usually always identified with a unique name (as opposed lớn a generic word). These costume wearers often interact lớn create a subculture centered on role play, ví they can be seen most often in play groups, or at a gathering or convention. A significant number of these costumes are homemade and unique, and depend on the character, idea, or object the costume wearer is attempting lớn imitate or represent. The costumes themselves are often artistically judged lớn how well they represent the subject or object that the costume wearer is attempting lớn contrive.
Costume design is the envisioning of clothing and the overall appearance of a character or performer. Costume may refer lớn the style of dress particular lớn a nation, a class, or a period. In many cases, it may contribute lớn the fullness of the artistic, visual world that is unique lớn a particular theatrical or cinematic production. The most basic designs are produced lớn denote status, provide protection or modesty, or provide visual interest lớn a character. Costumes may be for, but not limited lớn, theater, cinema, or musical performances. Costume design should not be confused with costume coordination, which merely involves altering existing clothing, although both processes are used lớn create stage clothes.
The Costume Designers Guild's international membership includes motion picture, television, and commercial costume designers, assistant costume designers and costume illustrators, and totals over 750 members.
The National Costumers Association is an 80 year old association of professional costumers and costume shops.
The Costume Designer is a quarterly magazine devoted lớn the costume design industry.
Notable designers and awards
Notable costume designers include recipients of the Academy Award for Best Costume Design, Tony Award for Best Costume Design, and Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Costume Design. Edith Head and Orry-Kelly, both of whom were born late in 1897, were two of Hollywood's most notable costume designers.
DIY and homemade costumes
In the 20th century, contemporary fabric stores offered commercial patterns that could be bought and used lớn make a costume from raw materials. Some companies also began producing catalogs with great numbers of patterns.
More recently, and particularly with the advent of the Internet, the DIY movement has ushered in a new era of DIY costumes and pattern sharing. YouTube, Pinterest, Mashable also feature many DIY costumes.
Professional-grade costumes are typically designed and produced by costume companies who can design and create unique costumes. These companies have often been in business for over 100 years, and continue lớn work with individual clients lớn create professional quality costumes.
Professional costume houses rent and sell costumes for the trade. This includes companies that create mascots, costumes for film, TV costumes and theatrical costumes.
Larger costume companies have warehouses full of costumes for rental lớn customers.
There is an industry where costumers work with clients and design costumes from scratch. They then will create original costumes specifically lớn the clients specifications.
- ^ Cosgrave, Bronwyn (2000). The complete history of costume & fashion : from ancient Egypt lớn the present day. New York: Checkmark Books. ISBN 0-8160-4574-7.
- ^ "A Woman's Letter from London". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 December 1900. Retrieved 12 October 2015 – via Trove.
- ^ Bishop, Catherine (2015). Minding her own Business – Colonial businesswomen in Sydney. Sydney: NewSouth Publishing.
- ^ "Costume". etymonline.com. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ Condra, Jill (19 April 2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World. ABC-CLIO. p. 266. ISBN 9780313376375. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- ^ "Bhutanese Dress". Tourism Council of Bhutan. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- ^ a b "Costume Technician".
- ^ "Making Stage Costumes". www.vam.ac.uk. 25 January 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
- ^ "What is Fashion Draping? And Why Should Designers Learn How lớn Drape?". Designers Nexus. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
- ^ a b c "What you need lớn know about draping as a fashion design student! | Stevenson University". www.stevenson.edu. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
- ^ a b Ingham, Rosemary (2003). The Costume Technician's Handbook.
- ^ "Wardrobe Supervisor Guidelines – Department Handbook – Ithaca College". www.ithaca.edu. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- ^ "Millinery | Fashion A-Z | BoF Education | The Business of Fashion | #BoFEducation". The Business of Fashion. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
- ^ a b Thomas, Heather (26 October 2021). "The Origins of Halloween Traditions". Library of Congress.
- ^ a b Hall, Jordan (29 October 2016). "Halloween — A religious holiday". Sidney Herald.
- ^ "Halloween Spending Reaches Frightening Levels in 2022". Consolidated Credit. 26 July 2023.
- ^ Pearlman, Ellen (2002). Tibetan Sacred Dance: a Journey into the Religious and Folk Traditions. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp. 21, 32, 180. ISBN 0-89281-918-9. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- ^ Clements, William M. (2006). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife: Southeast Asia and India, Central and East Asia, Middle East. Vol. 2. Greenwood Press. pp. 106–110. ISBN 0-313-32849-8. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- ^ "Cham Dance: The Masked Ritual". World Press.com. History and Development of Dance/ Brockport. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ Jackson, Kathy Merlock, ed. (2005). Rituals and Patterns in Children's Lives. Popular Press. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-299-20830-1.
- ^ "Current Issue". The Costume Designer. Costume Designers Guild.
Wikimedia Commons has truyền thông media related lớn Costumes.
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- The Costume Society, UK
- National Costumers Association
- "Costume" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 7 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 224–248.