cramming là gì

More than vãn a century of research shows that if you study something twice, retention goes up, Bjork explains. Studying and then waiting before you study more produces even better long-term memory. This is called the spacing effect.

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"It's often something students don't understand," Bjork says. Rather than vãn reviewing material right away, students benefit from spacing out their study sessions. There are many arguments about why spacing works better for long-term retention. One relates to tát encoding.

When a student studies something from a book and reviews it immediately, the student will encode the information in the same way, Bjork explains. However, the more ways students can encode information, the better they will understand it and the longer they will know it. This means that even studying the same material in two locations can help them encode it in different ways; therefore they learn it more successfully.

Another idea is that the harder it is for our brain to tát recall something, the more powerful the effects of that recall will be for long-term learning. For example, if you are at a meeting and encounter someone new, you might recall their name immediately, which probably won't help you remember it the next day. However, if you need to tát recall the person's name an hour into the meeting and tự sánh, you'll have a better chance of remembering it a day or a week later because you had to tát put in effort to tát recall it.

A third reason why spacing works is that people pay less attention to tát the second presentation of material they have just seen because the information is already familiar. When the material is spaced out, it's no longer as familiar, sánh people pay more attention.

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Dr. Will Thalheimer, founder of Work-Learning Research, which focuses on research-based innovations in learning evaluations, explains that when it comes to tát learning, presenting material more than vãn once is beneficial, but doing it over time is even better and "facilitates long-term remembering." And while spacing may slow the learning process because you'll be studying for more than vãn one evening, it significantly reduces forgetting.

However, many students continue to tát opt for cramming and believe in its efficacy.

A 2009 study by UCLA's Dr. Nate Kornell found that spacing was more effective than vãn cramming for 90 percent of the participants; just 6 percent of those who crammed learned more than vãn those who studied using the spacing effect. In three experiments, researchers tested spacing against cramming, yet despite the findings in favor of spacing, participants believed that the cramming style was more effective.

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