distract là gì

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Distraction is the process of diverting the attention of an individual or group from a desired area of focus and thereby blocking or diminishing the reception of desired information. Distraction is caused by: the lack of ability to lớn pay attention; lack of interest in the object of attention; or the great intensity, novelty or attractiveness of something other phàn nàn the object of attention. Distractions come from both external sources, and internal sources. External distractions include factors such as visual triggers, social interactions, music, text messages, and phone calls. There are also internal distractions such as hunger, fatigue, illness, worrying, and daydreaming. Both external and internal distractions contribute to lớn the interference of focus.[1]

In the car[edit]

Distracted driving is a dangerous threat to lớn road safety across the world. While drunk driving rates have been on the decline since 1983, distracted driving has been increasing in recent years. Many feel this incline is due to lớn the widespread prevalence of cell phones. While distracted driving can be attributed to lớn anything that diverts attention away from the road, it is often the cell phone that receives the blame for distracted driving incidents. Most of the recent studies have shown that cell phone usage while driving has striking similarities to lớn the effects of drinking while driving; Cell phones tend to lớn take the driver's attention away from the road and onto itself. With drunk driving, drivers often experience the "looking but not seeing" phenomena. While their eyes vì thế indeed view objects on the road, their brains vì thế not comprehend the meaning behind the image. All levels of distraction while driving are dangerous, and potential drivers are cautioned to lớn keep awareness of their surroundings.[2]

In the classroom[edit]

Many psychological studies show that switching between tasks, use of technology, and overstimulation has increased levels of distraction in the school setting. At school, distraction is often viewed as a source of poor performance and misbehavior. Distraction makes focusing on singular, assigned tasks more difficult. Digital components of learning are an emerging component to lớn classroom distraction. Parents, teachers, students, and scholars all have opinions about how technology either benefits or harms a students' focus in an academic setting. Research studies show that neuron circuits indicate a decrease in ability to lớn be attentive to lớn goal relative stimulus with the addition of distracting stimuli interference. School-aged students, with developing brains, are more apt to lớn conflicting stimuli while trying to lớn focus. Large classroom sizes, technology use in and outside the classroom, and less natural stimuli have been seen as contributing factors to lớn deflating test scores and classroom participation.[3]

In the workplace[edit]

Many computer workers keep multiple unrelated apps running at the same time.

Multitasking could also be considered as distraction in situations requiring full attention on a single object (e.g., sports, academic tests, performance). The issue of distraction in the workplace is studied in interruption science. According to lớn Gloria Mark, a leader in interruption science, the average knowledge worker switches tasks every three minutes, and, once distracted, a worker takes nearly a half-hour to lớn resume the original task.[4]

In fiction[edit]

In works of fiction, distraction is often used as a source of comedy, whether the amusement comes from the gullibility of those distracted or the strangeness of whatever is utilized to lớn create the distraction. Examples of comedic distraction, also called comic relief, can oftentimes be found in Shakespearean plays. In Hamlet, Shakespeare includes a scene in which two gravediggers joke around about Ophelia's death. While her death is by no means meant to lớn be funny, a small break from the sadness helped to lớn appease the groundlings in Shakespeare's time, as well as allow the rest of the audience to lớn take a break from the constant "doom and gloom" of his tragedies.[5]

In religion[edit]

Rabbi Alan Lew in his book, This is Real and You are Completely Unprepared, writes, "The thoughts that carry our attention away [during prayer or meditation] are never insignificant thoughts and they never arise at random. We lose our focus precisely because these thoughts need our attention and we refuse to lớn give it to lớn them. This is why they keep sneaking up on our attention and stealing it away. This is how it is that we come to lớn know ourselves as we settle deeply into the act of prayer [or meditation]". According to lớn philosopher Damon Young, distraction is chiefly an inability to lớn identify, attend to lớn or attain what is valuable, even when we are hard-working or nội dung.

In warfare[edit]

  • Fake targets:
    • In open field with mass military strategy, sometimes a contingent of troops distracts the enemy army to lớn expose their flank, or to lớn draw them away from a key point or fortification.
    • Flares can divert enemy soldiers' gaze.

Distraction was a key battle strategy in tales from the Trojan War. According to lớn the legend, the Greeks seemed to lớn have retreated by pretending to lớn sail away. In their stead, they left a large wooden horse, which the Trojans then chose to lớn bring back within their walls in order to lớn celebrate their supposed victory. The Greeks used the Trojans' pride as a distraction, as they actually hid men within the Trojan Horse in order to lớn let the rest of the army in during the cover of night. The Greeks then entered and destroyed the thành phố of Troy, effectively ending the 10-year standoff that was the Trojan War.[6]

In medicine[edit]

Clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil in glass vial

Distraction is useful in the management of pain and anxiety. Dentists, for example may intentionally hum an annoying tune or engage in small talk just to lớn create a diversion from the dental surgery process. Topical ointments containing capsaicin, provide a superficial burning sensation that can momentarily distract a patient's attention away from the more serious pain of arthritis or muscle strain. A similar effect is made by oil of cloves, which produces a burning sensation on the gums, and distracts from toothache.

Distraction is often used as a coping mechanism for short-term emotion regulation. When presented with an unpleasant reality, humans often choose to lớn occupy their attention with some other reality in order to lớn remain in a positive mental state. This is referred to lớn as 'procrastination' when the unpleasant reality is in the sườn of work. The natural human inclination to lớn distract oneself was put to lớn the test when the Department of Psychology at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Humboldt University of Berlin) held an experiment to lớn study distraction. The goal of the experiment was to lớn examine whether the effects of distraction on where subjects held their attention during repeated picture processing is changed by regular emotional functions. Furthermore, they hypothesized that while distraction assists in short-term emotional regulation, it is actually harmful in the long term. In order to lớn vì thế ví, the experimenters had subjects view 15 unpleasant pictures (Set A) and "attend" to lớn them (meaning the subjects were asked to lớn pay full attention to lớn the pictures). Next, the subjects were shown 15 unpleasant pictures (Set B) and were asked to lớn distract themselves from the pictures (meaning they were to lớn think about anything other phàn nàn the picture on the screen; their example was to lớn think about "the way to lớn the supermarket"). Finally, the subjects were shown 15 neutral pictures (Set C) and were asked to lớn attend to lớn them. After 10 minutes of rest, the subjects entered the "re-exposure phase", which repeated the experiment- this time requiring the subjects to lớn pay attention to lớn all of the sets, including Set B. This experiment was performed on 3 separate blocks of participants. To examine the state of the subjects' brain, the subject was to lớn wear "Ag/AgCl-electrodes from 61 head sites using an EasyCap electrode system with an equidistant electrode montage. Additional external electrodes were placed below the left (IO1) and right eye (IO2), below T1 (ground), on the nasion, and on the neck." The subjects were also asked to lớn rate the unpleasantness of the picture on the screen on a scale of 1-9. To test whether distraction in the first phase resulted in increased responsiveness during the re-exposure phase, experimenters "compared mean unpleasantness ratings between unpleasant pictures that were previously presented in the attend (previous attention) versus distract (previous distraction) condition using a paired t-test". The kết thúc results of the experiment were as such:

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  • When presented with repeated neutral and unpleasant images, subjects had reduced unpleasant stimuli as reflected in their decreased LPP (late positive potential) amplitudes, but only when the participants were asked to lớn attend to lớn those pictures.
  • When the subjects avoided confrontation with the unpleasant pictures through distraction, decrease in responsiveness was prevented as reflected in their constant LPP amplitudes.

Essentially, when exposed to lớn an unpleasant image, the subject feels initial discomfort. However, after being exposed to lớn it once with their full attention, the subject feels much less discomfort the second time they are exposed. When the subject distracts themselves from the initial unpleasant image, the subject feels more discomfort the second time when they are required to lớn attend to lớn the image. The experimenters' conclusion is thus: "the obtained results suggest that distraction inhibits elaborate processing of the stimulus' meaning and adapting to lớn it."[7]

In crime[edit]

Con artists and shoplifters sometimes create a distraction to lớn facilitate their crimes. Armed robbers may create a distraction after their robbery, such as pulling a fire alarm, to lớn create confusion and aid in their getaway. In a more serious case of crime, the Columbine shooters used pipe bombs to lớn distract from the shooting.[8]

In stage magic[edit]

Magicians use distraction techniques to lớn draw the audience's attention away from whichever hand is engaged in sleight of hand. Magicians can accomplish this by encouraging the audience to lớn look elsewhere or by having an assistant vì thế or say something to lớn draw the audience's attention away. Sleight of hand is often used in close-up magic, performed with the audience close to lớn the magician, usually within three or four meters, possibly in physical liên hệ. It often makes use of everyday items as props, such as cards and coins. The guiding principle of sleight-of-hand, articulated by legendary close-up magician Dai Vernon, is "be natural". A well-performed sleight looks lượt thích an ordinary, natural and completely innocent gesture, change in hand-position or toàn thân posture.

It is commonly believed that sleight of hand works because "the hand is quicker phàn nàn the eye" but this is usually not the case. In addition to lớn manual dexterity, sleight of hand depends on the use of psychology, timing, misdirection, and natural choreography in accomplishing a magical effect. Misdirection is perhaps the most important component of the art of sleight of hand. The magician choreographs his actions ví that all spectators are likely to lớn look where he or she wants them to lớn. More importantly, they vì thế not look where the performer does not wish them to lớn look. Two types of misdirection are timing and movement. Timing is simple: by allowing a small amount of time to lớn pass after an action, events are skewed in the viewer's mind. Movement is a little more complicated. A phrase often used is "A larger action covers a smaller action". Care must be taken however to lớn not make the larger action ví big that it becomes suspicious.[9]

By media[edit]

Propagandizing techniques of distraction are used in truyền thông manipulation. The idea is to lớn encourage the public to lớn focus on a topic or idea that the compliance professional feels is supportive of their cause. By focusing attention, a particular ideology can be made to lớn seem the only reasonable choice. Oftentimes, truyền thông competition is the driving force for truyền thông bias, manipulation, and distraction. If a truyền thông company can find an audience with a united ideology, it then develops a loyal consumer base, as its consumers will be happy with the way truyền thông is presented. A so-called "conservative" truyền thông outlet would not hire a "liberal" reporter, as they would lập cập the risk of alienating its viewership.[10]

Distraction is also important in studies of truyền thông multitasking, or the simultaneous use of multiple truyền thông at once. This behavior has emerged as increasingly common since the 1990s, especially among younger truyền thông users.[11] Studies show that while humans are predisposed to lớn the desire to lớn multitask, most people struggle to lớn have legitimate productivity while multitasking. Instead of giving a task full attention, the split attention that multitasking necessitates can cause one task to lớn be a distraction to lớn another.[12] On the other hand, some studies show that multitasking has the potential for a high-risk high-reward situation, leading to lớn the idea that success can arise from multitasking if one is good at the activity.[13]

Advertisers often seek to lớn distract people and divert their attention to lớn advertising nội dung. This has been characterized as attention theft.[14][15]


  1. ^ Post, Sean; Schumm, Jeanne Shay (1997). Executive Learning: Successful Strategies for College Reading and Studying. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  2. ^ Bingham, C. Raymond (May 2014). "Driver Distraction: A Perennial but Preventable Public Health Threat to lớn Adolescents". Journal of Adolescent Health. 54 (5): S3–S5. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.02.015. PMID 24759438.
  3. ^ Weissman, D.H. (2004). "The Neural Mechanisms for Minimizing Cross-Modal Distraction". The Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (48): 10941–10949. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3669-04.2004. PMC 6730222. PMID 15574744.
  4. ^ Alboher, Marci (22 June 2008). "Fighting a War Against Distraction". The Thủ đô New York Times.
  5. ^ Holland, Peter (November 2003). "Shakespeare and Comedy: An Annual Survey of Shakespeare Studies and Production". Shakespeare Survey. 56. ISBN 9780521827270. Retrieved 14 September 2016 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Broeniman, Cliff (1996). "Demodocus, Odysseus, and the Trojan War in "Odyssey" 8". The Classical World. 90 (1): 3–13. doi:10.2307/4351895. JSTOR 4351895.
  7. ^ Paul, Sandra; Kathmann, Norbert; Riesel, Anja (May 2016). "The costs of distraction: The effect of distraction during repeated picture processing on the LPP". Biological Psychology. 117: 225–234. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.04.002. PMID 27064106. S2CID 28950484.
  8. ^ "Colorado News and Denver News: The Denver Post".
  9. ^ Kuhn, Gustav (12 October 2010). "Misdirected by the gap: The relationship between inattentional blindness and attentional misdirection". Consciousness and Cognition. 20 (2): 432–436. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.013. PMID 20943415. S2CID 7205635 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
  10. ^ Stone, Daniel F. (2 February 2011). "Ideological truyền thông bias". Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 78 (3): 256–271. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.013. S2CID 154914591.
  11. ^ Wallis, Claudia (March 19, 2006), "The MultiTasking Generation", Time, vol. 167, no. 13, pp. 48–55, PMID 16579497, archived from the original on June 14, 2006. Wallis describes a survey by Donald F. Roberts and others for the Kaiser Family Foundation that found that multitasking children were able to lớn view truyền thông for an average of 8.5 hours inside the 6.5 hours spent interacting with electronic truyền thông.
  12. ^ Fenella, Saunders (December 2009). "Multitasking to lớn Distraction: Users of many concurrent truyền thông streams actually are less able to lớn switch between tasks". American Scientist. 97 (6): 455. doi:10.1511/2009.81.455. JSTOR 27859416.
  13. ^ Sanbonmatsu, David M. (23 January 2013). "Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking". PLOS ONE. 8 (1): e54402. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...854402S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054402. PMC 3553130. PMID 23372720.
  14. ^ Wu, Tim (April 14, 2017). "The Crisis of Attention Theft—Ads That Steal Your Time for Nothing in Return". Wired. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  15. ^ McFedries, Paul (22 May 2014). "Stop, Attention Thief!". IEEE Spectrum. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved 9 August 2021.

External links[edit]

Look up distraction in Wiktionary, the không tính phí dictionary.

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  • Distraction: A Philosopher's Guide to lớn Being Free, by Damon Young
  • Jackson, Maggie (2008) Distracted: The Erosion of Attention and the Coming Dark Age Review in Metapsychology by Elisabeth Herschbach, Ph.D. Archived 2014-03-05 at the Wayback Machine
  • Half-heard phone conversations reduce cognitive performance