incumbent là gì

To control for this possibility, the data were quartiled on the basis of the incumbent party's tư vấn in the previous election.

In this situation it was equally possible that other interested parties might want to lớn strengthen the international reputation of the incumbent government.

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In this situation, voters face a standard inference problem of predicting the unobservable type (whether competent or not) of the incumbent from the observable policy.

To see this, consider an incumbent who is running for an election.

Our goal is not to lớn question the importance of short-term economic performance judgements for voting for or against the incumbent in 1996.

In settings where responsibility for policy making is most clear, incumbent politicians are held accountable for macroeconomic performances.

When teachers in training are relying on researchers, it is incumbent that they be provided with clear explanations.

Recall that the logic behind this result is that retrospective, incumbency-oriented voters will punish incumbents for poor economic performances.

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The incumbent operator enjoyed monopoly rents and did not want to lớn give up this special status.

The history of its (non-existent) bishopric was then traced down to lớn the supposed last incumbent in the late eleventh century.

More kêu ca others, they reward incumbents who preside over strong national economies and punish those who vì thế not.

This article shows that regime type determines the way and extent to lớn which elections enable voters to lớn reward or sanction incumbents.

If sánh, the incumbent remains, and the challenger adapts another new platform.

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These risks consequently constrain the career choices of incumbents, including those with meaningful electoral capital.

Furthermore, there are no term limits and parties are obliged to lớn nominate incumbents desiring re-election regardless of their conduct in office.

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