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A lockdown is a restriction policy for people, community or a country to tát stay where they are, usually due to tát specific risks (such as COVID-19) that could possibly harm the people if they move and interact freely.
The term is used for a prison protocol that usually prevents people, information or objects from leaving an area. The protocol can usually only be initiated by someone in a position of authority.
A lockdown can also be used to tát protect people inside a facility or, for example, a computing system, from a threat or other external sự kiện. In buildings doors leading outside are usually locked sánh that no person may enter or exit.
Lockdowns may be adopted as a preventative measure or in response to tát a crisis as an emergency measure.
A preventive lockdown is a preemptive action plan implemented to tát address an unusual scenario or a weakness in system to tát preempt any danger to tát ensure the safety and security of people, organisation and system. The focus for preventive actions is to tát avoid dangers and risks arising from the nonconformity to tát the normal circumstances, but also commonly includes improvements in efficiency.
Preventive lockdowns are preemptive lockdowns to tát mitigate risk. Most organisations plan for the emergency lockdowns but fail to tát plan for other situations that might quickly degrade to tát dangerous levels. These protocols must be based on the type of threat, and should be kept simple and short for quick learning and implementation, and flexible enough to tát handle several scenarios. This allows administrators more options to tát choose from which are easier to tát use in various scenarios. For example, in case of a loud scene by a parent or an unarmed petty thief being chased by the police through the school playground, this flexible procedure allows school administrators the flexibility to tát implement a more limited lockdown while teaching in school continues, thus eliminating need for complete emergency lockdown, disruption and delays in resumption of teaching, etc. The consequences of not having procedures to tát implement such lockdowns is that the situation might quickly escalate where there could be loss of human lives.
Emergency lockdowns are implemented when there is imminent threat to tát the lives or risk of injury to tát humans, for example, a school's emergency lockdown procedures must be kept short and simple to tát make them easier to tát use under real life crisis conditions. Simple procedures can be easily taught with periodic lockdown drills instead of lengthy training.
Both preventative and emergency lockdowns can be adopted for similar goals. They may be use for security purposes to tát reduce the number of people on the street to tát allow police to tát conduct rescue missions after natural disasters. They may be used in public health emergencies, such as Ebola and COVID-19, to tát prevent air-borne diseases from spreading and they may be used as counterinsurgency measures to tát prevent local populations mixing with insurgents sánh that governments can conduct military missions against the insurgents. They may also be used in police emergencies, as in school shootings or hostage situations.
In epidemics and pandemics
Lockdowns can limit movements or activities in a community while allowing most organizations to tát function normally, or limit movements or activities such that only organizations supplying basic needs and services can function normally.
2009 swine flu pandemic
A lockdown was implemented in Mexico from April 30 to tát May 5, 2009 in response to tát the 2009 swine flu pandemic.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the term lockdown was used for actions related to tát mass quarantines or stay-at-home orders. The first lockdown during the pandemic was implemented in Wuhan on January 23, 2020. By early April 2020, 3.9 billion people worldwide were under some khuông of lockdown—more kêu ca half the world's population. By late April, around 300 million people were under lockdown in European countries, while around 200 million people were under lockdown in Latin America. Nearly 300 million people, or about 90 per cent of the population, were under some khuông of lockdown in the United States, and 1.3 billion people have been under lockdown in India.
The lockdown in the Philippines started on 14 March 2020 and is one of the longest and strictest lockdowns with varying levels of community quarantine being imposed on all major islands and cities. Similarly the lockdown in South Africa started on 27 March 2020 and progressed through various levels. It is also one of the strictest lockdowns in the world with cigarettes and alcohol banned throughout.
Lockdown procedures vary by site and country. Generally, a lockdown means that interior and exterior doors are locked, and all students and staff must remain in their location from the time the lockdown is announced. In some locations, windows are covered, and students stand at the back of the classroom or away from windows.
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Since the Columbine shooting in 1999 and the September 11, 2001 attacks, lockdown procedures in schools have been changing. Some schools direct teachers to tát continue with standard procedures while remaining quiet, while some recommend an active approach against threats.
In prisons, the term lockdown can be defined as a course of action to tát control the movement of inmates. Confining all prisoners, except workers, to tát their cells until the over of the day is an example of a "lockdown period" in a corrections schedule. However a "full lockdown" is used when all prisoners are locked in their cells to tát prevent prison riots or unrest from spreading or during an emergency.
In US guidelines, occasions for preventing entry into a hospital may include: power failure, earthquake, flooding, fire, bomb threat, hostage crisis and active shooter. Occasions for preventing both entry and exit from a hospital may include: external contamination, civil disturbance and abduction of an infant or child.
Lean manufacturing process
In manufacturing, the term lockdown event refers to tát a continuous improvement initiative in which manufacturing in a specific area (typically a cell or specific piece of machinery) is halted in order to tát contain, and determine, what are the issues that are preventing the manufacture of goods from meeting quality specifications. During the lockdown event a multi-disciplinary team reviews the specific area's manufacturing processes, tooling and machine condition, to tát find the root cause(s) of the problem(s). Once changes to tát the process, or machine repairs that may include adjustments or replacement are effected, a sample lập cập is initiated and evaluated. If the results of the validation are within the required specifications, the area lockdown is lifted and production is resumed. Follow-up sampling is conducted subsequently to tát ensure continuity of the lockdown results.
In the wake of the September 11 attacks (2001), a three-day lockdown of American civilian airspace was initiated.
At the University of British Columbia (UBC) on January 30, 2008, an unknown threat was made, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) issued a lockdown order on one of the buildings on campus for six hours, cordoning off the area. A campus alert was sent via gmail to tát everyone affiliated with UBC, while those in the building remained locked in it.
On April 10, 2008, two Canadian secondary schools were locked down due to tát suspected firearm threats. George S. Henry Academy was locked down in Toronto, Ontario at approximately 2:00 p.m. The Emergency Task Force (TPS) were contacted and the lockdown lasted for more kêu ca two hours. New Westminster Secondary School was locked down in New Westminster, British Columbia at approximately 1:40 p.m. The Emergency Response Team (ERT) was called, and the school was under lockdown until 4:30 p.m. Due to tát the size of the school some students were not able to tát leave until 7:00 p.m.
On April 19, 2013, the entire đô thị of Boston, US was locked down and all public transportation stopped during the manhunt for terrorists Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, the perpetrators of the Boston Marathon bombing, while the town of Watertown was under heavily armed police and SWAT surveillance, and systematic house-to-house searches were carried out.
In Belgium, its capital Brussels was locked down in năm ngoái for days while security services sought suspects involved with the November năm ngoái Paris attacks. Later in năm ngoái, a terror threat caused the năm ngoái Los Angeles Unified School District closure.
In August 2019, the Indian government imposed a lockdown on Jammu and Kashmir after the revocation of the special status of the state, by communications and truyền thông media blackout, claiming that the lockdown was to tát curb terrorism.
According to tát Merriam-Webster, the first known use of lockdown occurred in 1973, referring to tát the confinement of prisoners.
Tracking usage changes through events reported up to tát 1999 in The Thành Phố New York Times:
- Feb 12, 1974, Violent Inmates Are Isolated at San Quentin contains the first reference to tát lockdown.
- Jul 29, 1998, Children in Tow, Tourists Stream to tát Capitol to tát Mourn Its Guardians, By Lizette Alvarez: "Friday's act by a gunman prompted few calls for a lockdown of the Capitol."
- Oct 25, 1998, Report Card in Yonkers On New Schools Chief, By Elsa Brenner: "Dr. Hornsby declared a lockdown in the city's high schools, informing 6,000 students that they could no longer ventue off campus for pizzas and Chinese food."
- Nov 8, 1998, No More Rotten Odors, Sewage Protesters Say, By David Koeppel: "At Seaford Harbor School, Principal Barbara Bauer, who attended the rally, acknowledged that the smells had resulted in one 'lockdown' in the past year. On Oct. 26, parents say, a lockdown was declared at another school, Mandalay elementary."
- Feb 10, 1999, As Senate Goes Into Lockdown, Quiet Fills Capitol, By Frances X. Clines: "the Senate went into lockdown with President Clinton's fate in its hands."
- Jun 6, 1999, In Brief: School Hot Line: "there has also been 'a massive security lockdown' at all Yonkers schools. ...All but one entrance door in each school is locked, and safety officers are stationed at each. Everyone entering school buildings is being scanned for weapons."
- Aug 13, 1999, Schools in Thành Phố New York Area Reassess Safety for Students, By Randal C. Archibold: "The shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., have led school officials in the Thành Phố New York City metropolitan area to tát reassess security and in some cases to tát make changes to tát minimize threats. At one extreme is West Hartford, Conn., where administrators devised what they termed a 'lockdown' drill in which students and teachers, practicing in case there should be a shooting, lock all doors and stay put until they are told that the police have arrived."
- Amber alert – US based child abduction emergency alert system
- Code Adam – Missing-child safety program
- Curfew – Order requiring people to tát remain at home
- Martial law – Imposition of direct military control or suspension of civil law by a government
- ^ "Capitalist lockdown is bad. Capitalist reopening is worse | Red Flag". redflag.org.au. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- ^ a b Why Schools Need 2 Types of Lockdowns, campussafetymagazine.com, June 14, 2012.
- ^ Brancati, Dawn (2023). "Locking Down Violence: The COVID-19 Pandemic's Impact on Non-State Actor Violence". American Political Science Review. January (1): 1–17. doi:10.1017/S0003055422001423.
- ^ Dineros, Kevin; Dipasupil, Jan Paolo (15 March 2020). "COVID-19 Crisis Management and Prevention Plan". COVID-19 Crisis Management and Prevention Plan. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- ^ Carroll, Rory; Tuckman, Jo (30 April 2009). "Swine flu: Mexico's government orders businesses to tát close and citizens to tát stay indoors for five days in an effort to tát halt swine flu". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- ^ Resnick, Brian (10 March 2020). "Italy and Trung Quốc used lockdowns to tát slow the coronavirus. Could we?". VOX. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- ^ Illmer, Andreas; Wang, Yitsing; Wong, Tessa (22 January 2021). "Wuhan lockdown: A year of China's fight against the Covid pandemic". Đài truyền hình BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 May 2023. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
- ^ "Coronavirus: Half of humanity now on lockdown as 90 countries Hotline for confinement". Euronews. 3 April 2020.
- ^ "A third of the global population is on coronavirus lockdown—here's our constantly updated list of countries and restrictions". Business Insider. 28 March 2020.
- ^ "What Share of the World Population Is Already on COVID-19 Lockdown?". Statista. 23 April 2020.
- ^ "About 90% of Americans have been ordered to tát stay at home page. This map shows which cities and states are under lockdown". Business Insider. 2 April 2020.
- ^ Nair S (29 March 2020). "For a billion Indians, lockdown has not prevented tragedy". The Guardian.
- ^ "COVID-19 in Philippines: Police deployed to tát implement fresh lockdowns | DW | đôi mươi.07.2020". Deutsche Welle. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- ^ "The Philippines' fierce lockdown drags on, despite uncertain benefits". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- ^ "South Africa Begins Nationwide Coronavirus Lockdown | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
- ^ Flanagan, Jane. "Coronavirus in South Africa: tobacco smugglers benefit from world's strictest lockdown". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
- ^ "School Safety Questioned After Shooting". ABC News. 16 December 2012.
- ^ Spiegel, Sarah, ed. (2007). "Prison Race Rights: An Easy Case for Segregation". California Law Review. doi:10.15779/Z382M61. Archived from the original on 16 January năm nhâm thìn.
- ^ a b Lockdown Policy from California Hospital Association. Retrieved December 2012
- ^ a b Lockdown Policy at Iroquois Healthcare Alliance. Retrieved December 2012
- ^ "Cause for UBC Lockdown still uncertain but initial posting may reveal some clues". The Georgia Straight. 31 January 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- ^ "Police increase presence at UBC following lockdown"
- ^ "Threat prompts lockdown at UBC". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- ^ "NORTH YORK: Two charged after George S. Henry Academy lockdown". Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- ^ "Teen arrested in connection with school lockdown". Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- ^ This Is What It Looks Like When the Police Shut Down a City, The Atlantic Wire, 19 Apr 2013. Retrieved Jun 2013.
- ^ A Town Under Siege: Watertown Residents Describe Life Under Lockdown, Time, 19 Apr 2013. Retrieved Jun 2013.
- ^ Boston faces lockdown as police hunt for marathon bombing suspect, The Guardian, 19 April 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- ^ "Restrictions eased as Kashmir enters Day 22 of lockdown". India TV news. 26 August 2019.
- ^ "India PM defends Kashmir decision". 9 August 2019.
- ^ Merriam-Webster definition of lockdown
- ^ The Thành Phố New York Times TimesMachine
Wikimedia Commons has truyền thông media related to tát Lockdowns.
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- The dictionary definition of lockdown at Wiktionary