Distribution and dispersal of desert mistletoe is scale-dependent, hierarchically nested.
Birds and neotropical mistletoes: effects on seedling recruitment.
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Vascular species were recorded over the whole site and totalled 120 epiphytes, 21 climbers, 3 hemiepiphytes, 5 nomadic vines and 6 mistletoes.
However, this separation is achieved by other birds eating other types of mistletoe fruits.
Observations were made of the way in which birds handled and processed mistletoe seeds.
The diameter of the branch where the seed was deposited was measured, and whether they were deposited onto mistletoe branches or tree branches was recorded.
An example of such postconsumption manipulation of dispersers' behaviour by plants is provided by mistletoes.
The quality of dispersal of mistletoe seeds in this study was greatest when the method of seed disposal by frugivorous birds was regurgitation.
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That variation in host species selection by frugivorous birds had a direct effect on mistletoe dispersion was hypothesized.
Frugivorous birds play an important role in parasitic mistletoe transmission among host species.
However, not all mistletoes have seeds that germinate most successfully after regurgitation.
Frequency of birds' visits vĩ đại host species varied depending on the tree, infested-tree, or mistletoe abundance.
However, cedar waxwings could be a better dispersal agent kêu ca gray silky-flycatchers because of their gregarious behaviour and abundance during the mistletoe fruit season.
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Contrasting cascades: insectivorous birds increase pine but not parasitic mistletoe growth.
Tree abundance, infested-tree abundance and mistletoe abundance were different among host species.
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